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Kobieta Lily

widziany: 10.10.2016 21:12

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  • 5,8 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
This is an introduction to pragmatics, the study of how people make sense of each other linguistically. The author explains, and illustrates, basic concepts such as the co-operative principle, deixis, and speech acts, providing a clear, concise foundation for further study.

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  • 9,1 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
This volume provides a comprehensive view of the current issues in contemporary syntactic theory. Written by an international assembly of leading specialists in the field, these 2 original articles serve as a useful reference for various areas of grammar.
Contains 23 articles written by an international assembly of specialists in the field.
The lucidly written articles grant accessibility to crucial areas of syntactic theory.
Contrasting theories are represented.
Contains an informative introduction and extensive bibliography which serves as a reference tool for both students and professional linguists.

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  • 1,6 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
The present book deals with research on English acquisition and use with a special focus on the development of communicative competence by intercultural speakers.
Proposals deriving from the theoretical accounts and studies presented here may help cover the need for establishing variable pedagogical norms in English language teaching and learning.

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  • 4,3 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
The Handbook of Discourse Analysis makes significant contributions to current research and serves as a comprehensive and authoritative guide to the central issues in contemporary discourse analysis.

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  • 3,0 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
by Steven C. Hayes, Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Bryan Roche ===Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian Account of Human Language and Cognition
Relational frame theory, or RFT, is a psychological theory of human language and cognition, developed largely through the efforts of Steven C. Hayes and Dermot Barnes-Holmes and currently being tested in about three dozen laboratories around the world. Based on the philosophical roots of functional contextualism, it focuses on how humans learn language through interactions with the environment. Functional contextualism is an extension and contextualistic interpretation of B.F. Skinner's radical behaviorism, and emphasizes the importance of predicting and influencing psychological events, such as thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, by focusing on manipulable variables in their context.(Wikipedia)===

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  • 12,4 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
For nearly half a century, Professor M.A.K Halliday has been enriching the discipline of linguistics with his keen insight into this social semiotic phenomenon we call language. His scholarship has advanced our understanding of language as an activity which is both rational and relational, systemic and semantic, dynamic and diverse. Building on the legacy of his mentor, Professor J.R. Firth, Halliday approaches language from the vantage point of meaning and purpose, and provides a sound theoretical framework for dealing with questions about how and why we come to use language as we do for being and becoming who we are.

Halliday's work has long attracted a wide audience, which includes linguists, educators, computer scientists and policy makers. What many find appealing in the man and his scholarship is his rejection, on the one hand, of the elitism typical of certain other schools of linguistics, while on the other hand embracing the study of that which powers language and also conditions our ways of thinking and behaving.

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  • 0,8 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Professor Palmer's straightforward and comprehensive book was immediately welcomed as one of the best introductions to the subject.Based upon a series of lectures on semantics given at the Linguistic Institute in the State University of New York, Buffalo in 1971

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  • 18,8 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
This study deals with syntactic structure both in the board sense(as opposed to semantics)and the narrow sense(as opposed to phonemics and morphology). It forms part of an attempt to construct a formalized general theory of linguistic structure and to explore the foundations of such a theory.

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  • 4,1 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Following fast on the heels of Joel Davis's Mother Tongue ( LJ 12/93) is another provocative and skillfully written book by an MIT professor who specializes in the language development of children. While Pinker covers some of the same ground as did Davis, he argues that an "innate grammatical machinery of the brain" exists, which allows children to "reinvent" language on their own. Basing his ideas on Noam Chomsky's Universal Grammar theory, Pinker describes language as a "discrete combinatorial system" that might easily have evolved via natural selection. Pinker steps on a few toes (language mavens beware!), but his work, while controversial, is well argued, challenging, often humorous, and always fascinating. Most public and academic libraries will want to add this title to their collections.

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  • 1,3 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
by N.J. Lowe ✰✰✰ From Homer to Hollywood, the western storytelling tradition has canonised a distinctive set of narrative values characterised by tight economy and closure. This book traces the formation of that classical paradigm in the development of ancient storytelling from Homer to Heliodorus. To tell this story, the book sets out to rehabilitate the idea of ‘plot’, notoriously disconnected from any recognised system of terminology in recent literary theory. The first part of the book draws on current developments in narratology and cognitive science to propose a new way of formally describing the way stories are structured and understood. This model is then used to write a history of the emergence of the classical plot type in the four ancient genres that shaped it - Homeric epic, fifth-century tragedy, New Comedy, and the Greek novel - with new insights into the fundamental narrative poetics of each.

• First book-length study of ‘plot’ • New accessible but powerful theory of plot, surfing the new wave of theory bridging the gap between literary criticism and cognitive science • Special studies of Homer, tragedy, New Comedy and the Greek novel offer new insights into the fundamental narrative poetics of each, backed up with detailed analysis

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  • 1,1 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Stewart Shapiro's ambition in Vagueness in Context is to develop a comprehensive account of the meaning, function, and logic of vague terms in an idealized version of a natural language like English. It is a commonplace that the extensions of vague terms vary according to their context: a person can be tall with respect to male accountants and not tall (even short) with respect to professional basketball players. The key feature of Shapiro's account is that the extensions of vague terms also vary in the course of conversations and that, in some cases, a competent speaker can go either way without sinning against the meaning of the words or the non-linguistic facts. As Shapiro sees it, vagueness is a linguistic phenomenon, due to the kinds of languages that humans speak; but vagueness is also due to the world we find ourselves in, as we try to communicate features of it to each other.

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  • 3,4 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Dialogue as a Means of Collective Communication offers a cross-disciplinary approach to examining dialogue as a communicative medium. Presented in five parts, the book takes the reader on a journey of exploring the power and potential of dialogue as a means for communication. In particular, this volume comes at a time when the global society's attention has been directed to creating more productive conversations in the name of world peace and harmony. It provides a unique new work on dialogue that brings the reader into a "dialogue with dialogue", offering an opportunity to understand the communicative

potential of dialogue.

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  • 1,0 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
This book by distinguished philosopher Nicholas Rescher seeks to clarify the idea of what a conditional says by elucidating the information that is normally transmitted by its utterance. The result is a unified treatment of conditionals based on epistemological principles rather than the semantical principles in vogue over recent decades. This approach, argues Rescher, makes it easier to understand how conditionals actually function in our thought and discourse. In its concern with what language theorists call pragmatics--the study of the norms and principles governing our use of language in conveying information--Conditionals steps beyond the limits of logic as traditionally understood and moves into the realm claimed by theorists of artificial intelligence as they try to simulate our actual information-processing practices.

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  • 1,7 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Objects of Metaphor puts forward a philosophical account of metaphor radically different from those currently on offer. Powerful and flexible enough to cope with the syntactic complexity typical of genuine metaphor, it offers novel conceptions of the relationship between simile and metaphor, the notion of dead metaphor, and the idea of metaphor as a robust theoretic kind. Without denying that metaphor can sometimes be merely ornamental, Guttenplan justifies the view of metaphor as fundamental to language and the study of language. His book will be of great interest not only to philosophers in this field, but also to those working across psychology and linguistics.

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  • 0,9 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
by Zoltán Kövecses ✰✰✰ To what extent and in what ways is metaphorical thought relevant to an understanding of culture and society? More specifically: can the cognitive linguistic view of metaphor simultaneously explain both universality and diversity in metaphorical thought? Cognitive linguists have done important work on universal aspects of metaphor, but they have paid much less attention to why metaphors vary both interculturally and intraculturally as extensively as they do. In this book, Zoltán Kövecses proposes a new theory of metaphor variation. First, he identifies the major dimension of metaphor variation, that is, those social and cultural boundaries that signal discontinuities in human experience. Second, he describes which components, or aspects of conceptual metaphor are involved in metaphor variation, and how they are involved. Third, he isolates the main causes of metaphor variation. Fourth Professor Kövecses addresses the issue to the degree of cultural coherence in the interplay among conceptual metaphors, embodiment, and causes of metaphor variation.

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  • 48,5 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
The Discourse of Advertising is a very readable book that is well suited for undergraduate students whatever their academic background (literature, linguistics, cultural studies, communication studies, etc.). The balance between theory and practice is excellent. Advertising examples are mostly recent, and taken from a variety of supports (e.g. billboards, Internet, TV, magazines). The application of theoretical concepts to ads and literature provides a better understanding of these concepts, and especially allows for the distinction between the two genres. An excellent introductory tool not only to the field of advertising but also to the larger field of discursive studies in general, provided that instructors complete it with examples of ads particularly meaningful for their students..

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  • 20,9 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Figurative language, such as verbal irony, metaphor, hyperbole, idioms, and other forms is an increasingly important subfield within the empirical study of language comprehension and use. Figurative Language Comprehension: Social and Cultural Influences is an edited scholarly book that ties together recent research concerning the social and cultural influences on figurative language cognition. These influences include gender, cultural differences, economic status, and inter-group effects, among others. The effects these influences have on people's use, comprehension, and even processing of figurative language, comprise the main theme of this volume. No other book offers such a look at the social and cultural influences on a whole family of figurative forms at several levels of cognition.

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  • 18,3 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
This volume, Grice's first book, includes the long-delayed publication of his enormously influential 1967 William James Lectures. But there is much, much more in this work. Paul Grice himself has carefully arranged and framed the sequence of essays to emphasize not a certain set of ideas but a habit of mind, a style of philosophizing.
Grice has, to be sure, provided philosophy with crucial ideas. His account of speaker-meaning is the standard that others use to define their own minor divergences or future elaborations. His discussion of conversational implicatures has given philosophers an important tool for the investigation of all sorts of problems; it has also laid the foundation for a great deal of work by other philosophers and linguists about presupposition. His metaphysical defense of absolute values is starting to be considered the beginning of a new phase in philosophy. This is a vital book for all who are interested in Anglo-American philosophy.

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  • 3,3 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
In Context and Content Robert Stalnaker develops a philosophical picture of the nature of speech and thought and the relations between them. Two themes in particular run through these collected essays: the role that the context in which speech takes place plays in accounting for the way language is used to express thought, and the role of the external environment in determining the contents of our thoughts. Stalnaker argues against the widespread assumption of the priority of linguistic over mental representation, which he suggests has had a distorting influence on our understanding.

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  • 0,9 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Throughout her book, Cindy Johanek portrays a near-crisis situation in the field of rhetoric and composition: she laments the "prominent place" of anecdotal evidence that belies "our rejection of the quantitative," and warns us that the "near-abandonment of research that seeks and analyzes numerical data" will divide us "further into the more private worlds of personal stories" (11). She argues for an inclusive paradigm in composition and rhetoric studies, one that focuses on the type of research the field needs versus the kind we like. And she assumes that what we like is bad for the field. Many readers will find the arguments over paradigms, current-traditional rhetoric, and quantitative/qualitative debates familiar, but Johanek takes a uniquely strident approach in championing the neglected realms of empirical research.

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  • 0,6 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
In Context and Content Robert Stalnaker develops a philosophical picture of the nature of speech and thought and the relations between them. Two themes in particular run through these collected essays: the role that the context in which speech takes place plays in accounting for the way language is used to express thought, and the role of the external environment in determining the contents of our thoughts. Stalnaker argues against the widespread assumption of the priority of linguistic over mental representation, which he suggests has had a distorting influence on our understanding.

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  • 1,3 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
The coining of novel lexical items and the creative manipulation of existing words and expressions is heavily dependent on contextual factors, including the semantic, stylistic, textual and social environments in which they occur. The twelve specialists contributing to this collection aim to illuminate creativity in word formation with respect to functional discourse roles, but also examine ‘critical creativity’ determined by language policy, as well as diachronic phonetic variation in creatively-coined words. The data, based either on large corpora or smaller hand-collected samples, is drawn from advertising, the daily press, electronic communication, literature, spoken interaction, cartoons, lexical ontologies and style guides. Each study analyses novel formations in relation to their contexts of use and inevitably leads to the crucial question of creativity vs. productivity. By focussing on creative lexical formations at the level of parole, these studies provide insights into morphological theory at the level of langue, and ultimately seek to explain lexical creativity as a function of language use.

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  • 0,8 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
by Peter Collier, David Horowitz Beginning with his criticism of the Vietnam War in the 1960s, MIT professor Noam Chomsky has become better known for his radical politics than for his theories of language. These essays scrutinize both the theories and the politics: linguists Paul Postal and Robert Levine reevaluate Chomsky's linguistics to find parallels with his politics; scholar Paul Bogdanor explores Chomsky's hatred of Israel; Ronald Radosh and David Horowitz discuss Chomsky's gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks; and other authors examine Chomsky's Holocaust revisionism, apologies for Khmer Rouge tyrant Pol Pot, and strident views on America's policies in Latin America.

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  • 2,0 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30

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  • 1,2 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
The book discusses key approaches to stylistic variation, including such issues as attention paid to speech, audience design, identity construction, the corpus study of register, genre, distinctiveness and the anthropological study of style. Rigorous and engaging, this book will become the standard work on stylistic variation.

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  • 2,5 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
Chapter 1 offers a theoretical introduction to the general framework of variationist sociolinguistics, and is followed in chapters 2 and 3 by a discussion of study design and methods of data collection. Chapters 4 and 5 explore issues related to the social dimensions of language variation, and chapters 6 and 7 focus on linguistic issues, discussing various aspects of data analysis and interpretation related to phonological variation, and grammatical variation. Finally, style-switching and code-switching are examined in chapter 8.

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  • 4,5 MB
  • 7 lut 12 18:30
The volume is organized along central concepts: A general section deals with connectivity in language change and language acquisition, subdivisions are devoted to pronouns, topics and subjects, the role of finiteness in text and discourse, coordination and subordination and particles, adverbials and constructions.

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