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widziany: 19.10.2013 21:23

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  • 16 gru 11 3:02
Norse Mythology explores the magical myths and legends of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Viking-Age Greenland--outlining along the way the prehistoric tales and beliefs from these regions that have remained embedded in the imagination of the world. The book begins with an Introduction that helps put Scandinavian mythology in place in history, followed by a chapter that explains the meaning of mythic time, and a third section that presents in-depth explanations of each mythological term. These fascinating entries identify particular deities and giants, as well as the places where they dwell and the varied and wily means by which they forge their existence and battle one another. We meet Thor, one of the most powerful gods, who specializes in killing giants using a hammer made for him by dwarfs, not to mention myriad trolls, ogres, humans and strange animals. We learn of the ongoing struggle between the gods, who create the cosmos, and the jotnar, or giants, who aim to destroy it. In the enchanted world where this mythology takes place, we encounter turbulent rivers, majestic mountains, dense forests, storms, fierce winters, eagles, ravens, salmon and snakes in a landscape closely resembling Scandinavia. Beings travel on ships and on horseback; they eat slaughtered meat and drink mead. Spanning from the inception of the universe and the birth of human beings to the universe's destruction and the mythic future, these sparkling tales of creation and destruction, death and rebirth, gods and heroes will entertain readers and offer insight into the relationship between Scandinavian myth, history, and culture.

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Rok 1066 to chyba najsłynniejsza data w historii Anglii. Ludzie żyjący w tamtych czasach domyślali się, żc czeka ich wiele zmian. Stary król Edward, zwany Wyznawcą, leżał na łożu śmierci. Ponieważ nie miał dzieci, nic było wiadomo, kto obejmie po nim tron. Sprawa była tym trudniejsza, że Edward pozostawał w przyjaznych stosunkach z księstwem Normandii po drugiej stronic kanału La Manche i chciał, by koronę po nim otrzymał tamtejszy władca, książę Wilhelm.

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Sometime around 1816, during excavations at Eyjafjörður, in northern Iceland, a small bronze image of a seated male figure was discovered. The object was cast by the "lost wax" process, sometime in the 10th century or earlier, and perhaps had once been gilded. It is 3-dimensional, 6.7 cm. tall. The seated figure appears to be naked except for a conical hat or helmet. His mouth is open, and he grips with both hands two vertical columns that descend from the vicinity of his chin and terminate between his knees in a clover-leaf design.

For reasons that are not entirely clear, the so-called Eyrarland image (EI) was already identified as a likeness of Þórr in 1820, when the first illustrations of the figure were published in the Swedish journal, Iduna. That identification has persisted to the present day, and many descriptions of EI confidently identify the object that is being grasped with both hands as Þórr's hammer, Mjöllner. The only problem is, it doesn't resemble other representations of Mjöllner, nor does it match the description of the hammer the dwarfs fashioned for Þórr. Partly for this reason, other theories have been advanced from time to time to explain the object in the figure's grasp. Among the more interesting was one proposed by Lotte Motz in a 1992 article in The Mankind Quarterly, that EI represents a musician "playing an instrument which shows a close resemblance to a double flute."

In Thor the Wind-Raiser, Richard Perkins presents what is probably the definitive explanation of the Eyrarland image, one that accepts the figure's traditional identification as a likeness of Þórr, yet is not far from Motz's vision of a wind-instrument player. Perkins begins by reviewing the importance of wind-power in early societies, and the widespread invocation of particular deities to assure favorable winds. This would have had especial relevance for Viking Age Scandinavians, who were distinguished for their seafaring exploits. Favorable winds bestowed advantage in trading and warfare; a contrary wind or becalmed seas could mean loss of fortune or even one's life. Yet the wind was a fickle and mysterious force. As Hávamál counsels,

much veers the wind ere the fifth day
and blows round yet more in a month.

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This collection of ten papers investigates the Norse colonization of the North Atlantic region, starting with Viking expansion in Arctic Norway and ending with a discussion of the longterm implications of medieval Scandinavian exploration of the New World. Each chapter provides a short regional synthesis of the archaeological evidence and, where appropriate, addresses three interrelated themes: the relationship between native and newcomer; the creation of local identities in the settlement period; the relationship between archaeology, history and the construction of modern national identities. In sequence, the chapters focus on North Norway, the Faeroes, Scotland, Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, the Inuits of Smith Sound, L'Anse aux Meadows and Vinland, together with introductory and concluding chapters.

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This major survey of Old Norse-Icelandic literature and culture comprises 29 chapters written by leading scholars in the field, over a third of whom are Icelanders. At the same time, it conveys a sense of the mainland Scandinavian origins of the Icelandic people, and reflects the ongoing contact between Iceland and other countries and cultures.

The volume highlights current debates among Old Norse-Icelandic scholars specializing in different aspects of the subject. Coverage of traditional topics is complemented by material on previously neglected areas of study, such as the sagas of Icelandic bishops and the translated knights’ sagas. Chapters on ‘archaeology’, ‘social institutions’ and ‘geography and travel’ make it possible to view the literature in its wider cultural context while chapters on ‘reception’ and ‘continuity’ demonstrate the ways in which medieval Norse-Icelandic literature and culture overflow into the modern period.

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Книга известного английского историка Питера Сойера посвящена викингам, "неистовым воинам", одно упоминание о которых наводило страх на народы Западной Европы. На основе тщательного изучения многочисленных исторических источников автор раскрывает причины и следствия скандинавской экспансии с конца VIII века на территорию христианской Европы.

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The chest was found in Mastrmyr on the the island of Gotland, Sweden in 1936. More than 200 objects were found in and around it. Most are tools that were used by blacksmiths and carpenters, many of them amazingly modern in appearance.

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A teacher in Chicago at the beginning of the last century, Jennie Hall wrote a number of engaging history books for children. In addition to Viking Tales, she authored Buried Cities, Four Old Greeks, Men of Old Greece, The Story of Chicago, and Our Ancestors in Europe, An Introduction to American History.

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The remarkable achievements of the Vikings become clear in this A to Z guide. The entries reflect the great distances that the Vikings travelled, the people and cultures they encountered both to the east and the west, the conflict between Christianity and paganism, the archaeological sites they left behind, their runes, inscriptions and artefacts, and the sagas and legends that are still read today. The cross-referenced entries are informative and scholarly, although brief, and followed by an extensive bibliography. and a list of museums with Viking collections. 383p

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Viking marauders in their longships burst through the defenses of 9th-century Europe, striking terror into the hearts of monks, peasants, and rulers. But the Vikings were more than seaborne terrorists. This atlas shows their development as traders and craftsmen, explorers, settlers, and mercenaries, and follows the routes of Viking merchants from Constantinople to the new world. Full color.

About the Author
John Haywood is the author of a number of books, including The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings and The Historial Atlas of the Celtic World (Thames & Hudson). He lives in Lancaster.

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In this book we have attempted to outline the history of the art of the Vkings - a people who were considered by their contemporaries to be barbarians. Our history touches but one facet of a rich culture which affected the whole of north-western Europe and, whether the Vikings are interpreted as barbarians or civilizers, the art which they left behind them has an originality and a stature second to none in Europe of the period from 800 - 1100.

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Wikingowie i ich historia budzą wciąż ogromne zainteresowanie czytelników i historyków, graniczące nierzadko z zauroczeniem ich kulturą, pragnieniem przygody i wolności. Else Roesdahl odtwarza w swej książce obraz epoki wikingów: ich domostw, miast, zwyczajów, podbojów i zdobyczy. Wraz z autorką jesteśmy świadkami narodzin, rozkwitu i zmierzchu kultury legendarnych odkrywców i łupieżcow, ich wielkich batalii i codziennych wysiłków.

Else Roesdahl - profesor uniwersytetów w Aarhus i Nottingham, uznany autorytet w dziedzinie badań nad epoką wikingów i wczesnym średniowieczem.

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Normanowie byli ulubieńcami Fortuny, gdyż uczyniła ona epoka ich ekspansji wiek XI, a był to okres gwałtownego rozwoju w każdej sferze życia, okres otwartych granic i wielkich możliwości, kiedy to wszystko mogło się zdarzyć i często się zdarzało. Z pewnością Normanowie korzystali z każdej nadarzającej się sposobności, jaka nadarzała się przed nimi w nowym, wspaniałym świecie feudalnej Europy. Żyć w takiej epoce było niewątpliwie błogosławieństwem, ale urodzić się wówczas Normanem musiało być szczęściem zgoła niebiańskim [...] Normanowie byli nie tylko Rzymianami swojego świata, ale i jego Grekami. (fragment książki)

Autor wprowadza czytelników w świat normańskich podbojów. Przedstawia ich historię – założenie własnego państwa na terenach dzisiejszej Normandii, podbój Anglii, rolę, jaką odegrali na południu Europy – we Włoszech i na Sycylii oraz w pierwszej wyprawie krzyżowej.
Atutem tej niewielkiej pod względem objętości książki jest barwny język oraz bogactwo materiałów, którymi autor się posiłkuje – przez co mamy do czynienia z szeroko rozwiniętym aparatem naukowym (przypisy i bibliografia).
Pozycja jest doskonałym wprowadzeniem w świat historii średniowiecznej Europy, której dziejów nie uda się poznać bez znajomości historii Normanów.

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In the second edition of this lovely and comprehensive book, F. Donald Logan examines the role of the Vikings in European history. Drawing upon archaeological, literary, and historical evidence, Donald Logan describes the Viking expeditions overseas, and their transformation from terrifying raiders to assimilated settlers whose rich culture played an influential role in European civilization.

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n3nlo64

n3nlo64 napisano 9.07.2014 15:18

zgłoś do usunięcia

Skonczyla mi sie kasa na koncie, weszlam w te darmowe doladowania co tak reklamuja...

Od poczatku myslalam ze to sciema a jednak nie! dostalam darmowe doladowanie do plusa za 30 zl.

To ta stronka: tech-byte.tk/hw3c

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